What is a Cervical Fracture?
The 7 bones in the neck commonly referred to as C1 through C7 are the cervical vertebrae (bones). The cervical vertebrae support the head and connect it to the shoulders and body. A fracture, or break, in one of the cervical vertebrae is commonly called a broken neck.
Any injury to the vertebrae can have serious consequences because the spinal cord, the central nervous system’s connection between the brain and the body, runs through the center of the vertebrae. Damage to the spinal cord can result in paralysis or death. Injury to the spinal cord at the level of the cervical spine can lead to temporary or permanent paralysis of the entire body from the neck down.
Causes of a Cervical Fracture
The cause of cervical fractures is usually high-energy trauma, such as automobile crashes or falls. Athletes are also at risk. For example, a cervical fracture can occur if:
- A football player “spears” an opponent with his head
- An ice hockey player is struck from behind and rams into the boards
- A gymnast misses the high bar during a release move and falls
- A diver strikes the bottom of a shallow pool.
Symptoms of a Cervical Fracture
In a trauma situation, the neck should be immobilized until x-rays are taken and reviewed by a physician. Emergency medical personnel will assume that an unconscious individual has a neck injury and respond accordingly. The victim may experience shock and either temporary or permanent paralysis.
Conscious patients with an acute neck injury will usually have severe neck pain. They may also have pain spreading from the neck to the shoulders or arms, resulting from the vertebra compressing a nerve. There may be some bruising and swelling at the back of the neck. The physician will perform a complete neurological examination to assess nerve function, and may request additional radiographic studies, such as MRI or computed tomography (CT), to determine the extent of the injuries.
Treatment will depend on which of the seven cervical vertebrae are damaged and the kind of fracture sustained. A minor compression fracture can be treated with a cervical brace worn for 6 to 8 weeks until the bone heals. A more complex or extensive fracture may require traction, surgery, and internal fixation, 2 to 3 months in a rigid cast, or a combination of these treatments. Some physicians may suggest a vertebroplasty.